Marketing is science and the art of exploring. Create and deliver value to meet the needs of a target market with benefits. Marketing identifies unrealized needs and desires. Defines, measures and quantifies the size of the identified market and the potential for profit.
- 1 You know what marketing is?
- 2 Origin of Marketing
- 2.1 The first scholars and the emergence of marketing as an area of knowledge
- 2.2 The History of Marketing
- 2.3 The evolution of the marketing concept
You know what marketing is?
If this was the main doubt that brought you here, I can say that you have found the right place.
In this article we will explain the concept. What are the main types of marketing that exist and several other information for you to understand how to get started.
Concept: What is marketing?
The first step to begin to understand what marketing is is to define the concept.
Marketing is a word from the English language. Despite being intrinsic to world culture.
In English, market means marketplace and Marketing can be translated as Marketing. A study of the causes, objectives and results. That are generated through the different ways in which we handle the market.
According to the American Marketing Association, the definition of the term is marketing is an activity. A set of institutions. and processes to create, communicate, deliver, and exchange offerings that are valuable to customers. Partners and society in general.
In other words, Marketing is a series of strategies. Techniques and practices that have the main objective of adding value to certain brands or products. In order to attribute greater importance to a particular target audience, consumers.
It is wrong who believes that Marketing has just as the goal of selling something.
This concept goes deeper into everything involved in this process. As well as the production, logistics, marketing and after-sales of the product/service.
Origin of Marketing
As much as it is a relatively new field of research and knowledge. Marketing is present in our lives to a very, very long time.
Most scholars say marketing in the way we know it. It originated at the beginning of the years 1900. But the very definition of the concept says marketing. It implies the identification and satisfaction of human and social needs.
Well, we all have needs and humanity has them well before 1900. Truth? According to scholars, transactions evolved. From antiquity to the nineteenth century, taking the form we know today.
Marketing as a field of study appeared when competition between companies began to be strong. And the marketers went on to create theories on how to attract their audience and increase their sales.
This idea began to gain more strength near the end of the Second World War. In 1945, when America was recovering from an economic crisis. and industries needed to sell more, at any cost.
The word of marketing is derived from the “Mercat ” America that refers to the act of commerce in ancient Rome. Then it became the symbol of increasing efforts to increase sales.
Well, to speak the truth well. At the beginning of all marketing tactics were based on lies and tricks to deceive the consumer.
The first scholars and the emergence of marketing as an area of knowledge
To evolve and stop being a handful of practices to deter the public. The scholars went on to develop and test more efficient marketing methods. Mainly from the years 40.
Walter Scott performs a brilliant study of the use of psychology in advertising. Showing how the encouragement of expected human behavior leads to consumption. And how this is a useful tool for companies.
Bartels, Polanyi and Peter Drucker go on studying marketing “pure ” even more. So it is a form of practical thinking, but for many it was considered subjective, almost an “Art “.
As for that we can have some doubts. But when Drucker launches his book, “The Practice of administration.” Entrepreneurs and investors go on to consider marketing as an investment to be considered.
Currently the traditional marketing thinking lines are directed by Kotler and Keller. Through the famous “Marketing direction “, with its first edition of 1967.
He treats the line of thought as something consumer-oriented. Where companies should not only think about selling and profiting. But to get to know the public and create campaigns that talk to him.
The History of Marketing
Defining precisely when Marketing came up is virtually impossible. Since that is such an ancient activity. As the first exchanges and sales made by the ancient civilizations.
At that time the Marketing strategies we know today were used, with characteristics not so well defined. But very similar.
The way to communicate in order to show the value of your product or service to your consumers. In order to conclude a sale seems too basic, but that is marketing.
Nowadays it is easy to identify which brands and companies work their Marketing in an exemplary way. and which ones need to devote more.
Today, Marketing has become so essential for any purchasing process. That companies that don’t do it in a good way are practically despised.
The evolution of the marketing concept
At that time, the practice of Drucker’s administration takes the first steps to disseminate marketing. Where it is treated as a force to sell more through processes involving the consumer. Attracting the attention of managers and entrepreneurs.
In 1967 Philip Kotler launches the first edition of “Marketing direction “. Preceded by the “Father ” of the Theodore Levitt marketing with the article “The myopia of marketing “.
From there, the papers, the material research and the data began to be published and disseminated. Marketing strategies have been studied more seriously. And the market began to use these techniques more and more. Kotler gave the definition used until today of marketing where it is a social process. Where people acquire something they want, through the negotiation of products and services.
Marketing became compulsory for companies.
The main brands had built offices that work in constant advertising agencies contact Madson Avenue, known Mad Men. Governments, civil and religious organizations go on to use marketing strategies adapting to their needs.
The idea of selling at all costs is reflected by Satisfaction in the first place.
The years 80 were the years of fashion.
Marketing gurus appear with theories their scientific content, but bringing marketing to the masses. With that, it became a concern of companies of all sizes and in all their departments.
In the midst of this boom, great marketing authors were forgotten. Like the Ries who made the first definition of the positioning of the brand and Jay Conrad Levinson. The first to talk about guerrilla marketing.
The technology comes in the years 90 with what CRM (Customer Relationship Management) and virtual stores.
Progress has made it possible to manage large-scale customer relationships. In addition to creating a communication pathway that has been highly disseminated over the years.
Brand customization became compulsory and marketing went on to focus on society. With focus on social actions and causes.
00 ‘ is the year of mobile telephony, Wired Internet, viralization, cross-media. E-commerce and social networks.
It is the first example of customer power, from the first ideas of marketing in the years 50. The way the companies offered. They communicated and distributed their products completely changed, mainly with e-commerce.
Here, spontaneous media and social interactions begin to take space from traditional propaganda, which has changed the way we do marketing and communication.
Period in which the digital transformation begins to take shape.
Search Marketing (SEO/SEM), marketing marketing, relationship marketing, content marketing.
Although some have already appeared before. In 2010 we have the growth of marketing forms. Focused on how the consumer behaves and relates to the company and the product/service.
The idea here is to insert the brand in the day to day of the people forgetting the intrusive marketing and investing in relation.
Search Engine Marketing
Search marketing appears trendy for the next few years. Linking content, content marketing/SEO. With Google search engines. and marketing in SEM search engines.
All three work together, to mention other forms of digital marketing and do not tend to be a natural evolution, as was the 50 so far.
The four marketing p
Also known as marketing mix or marketing mix. These are the variables that dictate and influence the way their strategies should be established. And they also acted in the way the market responds to their progress.
Now know the characteristics of the four p: Price, place, product and promotion.
Explanatory Point. Reference to the value and how the customer will be charged for your product. In addition to the definition of value. Other points such as the way that will be charged and other payment-oriented strategies are addressed.
refers to placing your product will be marketed. This point can be a bit confusing when analyzing the context of e-commerce. Since it is on the Internet. And it can be shipped to any part of the world (depending on the logistics of each company).
This point is important because it makes clear what are the characteristics of the product or service. That your company is making available on the market. It also helps define and shape it.
Simple, this last point refers to the strategies that will be used for the dissemination of the product or service. This is where the publicityplays an important role.
It is important to understand that, despite very important. Marketing Mix is just a model to better classify marketing activities. But it’s not that they never limit them.
Today with the various technological advances, mainly the Internet. There are several scenarios in which the 4Ps of marketing and not those perfectly.
A good marketing professional should understand how they work in order to extract their principles and apply to other scenarios.
The hat differs from the marketing study. For advertising and advertising and what these higher or technical courses teach. Is that advertising and propaganda is going to prepare the material. That better communicate with the audience of the brand.
They will be responsible for creating the project, the concept and the piece. Either a folder, a part of digital marketing or even a propaganda.
Marketing management acts before and after creation occurs. The professionals responsible for this area must understand the consumer. What he wants, what he needs, how the product is right for him.
Then you should understand the profile of that audience and how to get to it. And that encompasses everything: from person to language.
A channel map that will distribute a single piece. Television, newspaper, Internet, department stores, convenience, never mind. It matters even where the public is and how it consumes information.
But if the professionals of the creation will be able to collect that information and think about how to reach the specific audience.
After this process, the distribution must be made.
They are also assignments of the area:
Develop marketing plans
Identify area growth opportunities
To develop a better communication to strengthen the brand.
To develop the best offers for the consumer market.
Communicate the value to be delivered by the product/service.
Measure what is being done.
This orientation arose in the middle of the years 50. The idea here is part of the “feel and Answer” philosophy.
It focuses on the customer and seeks to find the right product for the consumer and not the other way around. As is more common. Consumption occurs when the company is more effective than competitors in creation. Delivery and communication of the products.
Product orientation holds that consumers give preference for quality products. and performance above average, or that has innovative features. This is the antithesis of production. Here, companies focus on producing quality elements and perfecting them over time.
A new product will not necessarily be successful, it needs to be promoted. Viewing and distributed in a proper way.
Here, companies are part of the idea that consumers. They never buy the products of the organization in sufficient quantity, by their own free will.
Thus, offers and promotions are created for the customer to buy more units, even if there is no need.
Market life cycle
Nothing lasts forever and the same applies to the market.
They’re remarkable, every now and then. The changes that occur in the market and in the consumption habits of the population. It is perceived that evolution inevitably occurs. And that symbolizes the end of a certain life cycle of the market.
Companies need to be attentive to the big events that influence the market curve issues as politics. Habits of consumption and mentality of the population of a certain generation. They are determinants to draw good strategies of action in the market.
The life cycle comprises four well-defined stages: launching, growth, maturity and declination.
This first phase is characteristic of the acquisition of new competencies. Conquest and development of differentiated technologies. or other things that are able to transform the way you think about the market.
It’s the second phase. Of course, with the emergence of a new technology or competition. The market begins to demand that new type of product.
In this case, you have to be prepared for the demands of the market.
At the time of maturity, the market is already uniform in relation to the technology or competition in question. The competition is already stabilized. And the population already consumed that product at the time of “Fever.”
At that point in the curve, technology is already stagnant, losing its appeal. The companies that had to adapt to that demand already did their part. And everything is fixed at that time. Probably, at the time. Somewhere in the world someone is studying another way to perfect the products and the cycle will start again.
When the technology reaches maturity and loses the attraction for the performance of the competition. And the excitement of the public, the decline begins.
Usually at this stage we get to perceive a modification. Considerable in the line of evolution previously invested by competitors.
Many companies desist from that market and go in search of new technologies. and skills to launch one more trend and a new cycle begins.